Contrastive analysis, error analysis and interlanguage in. Markedness and second language acquisition of word order. Wardhaugh, ronald the claim that the best language teaching materials are based on a contrast of the two competing linguistic systems has long been a popular one in language teaching. Most contrastive studies take into account basic building blocks of languages such as phonics and vocabulary and also the structural natures of many.
The flege 1987 results suggest that adult learners of an l2 may be more successful at. Document resume the contrastive analysis hypothesis. Pdf the implications of three versions of the contrastive analysis hypothesis cah are explored. Acomparisonoftheenglishandtagalogsoundsystems 3between these two languages. The claim that the best language teaching materials are based on a contrast of the two competing linguistic systems has long been a popular one in language teaching. According to the behaviourist theories prevailing at the time, language learning was a question of habit formation, and this could be. Full text of contrastive analysis and error analysis a. In addition, ca is a technique to identify whether two languages have something in common, which assess both similarities and differences in languages. A contrastive analysis of the prepositions of and from. Contrastive analysis hypothesis in 1960s when structural linguistics and behavioral psychology were dominant, contrastive analysis hypothesis cah model was developed. Contrastive analysis hypothesis linkedin slideshare. Contrastive analysis hypotheses cah strong version the change that has to take place in the language behavior of a foreign language student can be equated to the differences between the structure of the students native language and culture and that of the target language and culture. Contrastive analysis was used extensively in the field of second language acquisition sla in the 1960s and early 1970s, as a method of explaining why some features of a target language were more difficult to acquire than others.
The linguistic view side of cah was under dominance of structuralism, developed by bloomfield 1933 and the cooperation of fries. And even if the answer to that question is a more or less hesitant affirmative, then one may well question the value to teachers and curriculum workers. Historically it has been used to establish language genealogies. Contrastive analysisca is a method to distinguish between what are needed and not needed to learn by the target languagetl learner by evaluating languages m. With charles fries, he was involved with the university of michigan eli english language institute, which.
In this book, lado claimed that those elements which are similar to the learners native language will be simple for him, and those elements that are. Contrastive analysis, error analysis, interlanguage 1. It exists in strong and weak versions, the strong one arising from evidence from the availability of some kind of metatheory of contrastive analysis and the weak from evidence from language interference. Learning language, is a question of habit formation. As such, contrastive analysis must view language psycholinguistically and sociolinguistically as a system to be both described and acquired. Importance of errors in the process of learning and acquiring a language. A contrastive analysis must proceed through four steps. An overview of contrastive analysis hypothesis citeseerx. An interlanguage is idiosyncratically based on the learners. Mar 08, 2014 a contrastive analysis of research article. Origins and development of the speech learning model.
Pdf contrastive analysis and error analysis masoud. The change that has to take place in the language behavior of a foreign language student can be. Cah this extension of the notion of ca attributed the ability to predict errors to a ca of two languages, a predictability that practitioners associated with the degree of similarity between the two systems. It is a fact that there are some disadvantages of cah, but. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to explore the difficulties of native english speaking learners, in acquiring chinese as a second language and how it is related to the markedness theories, in particular, the typological markedness hypothesis. Whether youve loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. Of is by derivation related to from and its simplest and commonest use is in establishing a link. Contrastive analysis ca hypothesis in 19791984, most l2 research was framed in terms of the cah which posited that l2 phonemes that are similar to l1 phonemes will be easy to produce. This needs to be verified in a formal perceptual test. Strong, weak, and moderate versions of contrastive analysis hypothesis are discussed in details here. The contrastive analysis hypothesis english language essay. Use the pedagogical implications of contrastive analysis in class.
It was soon pointed out that many errors predicted by contrastive analysis were inexplicably not observed in. According to this hypothesis, interference was a main source of errors in the process of second language acquisition. Most analyses are weakened by insufficient care at one or more of these steps, each of which is beset with problems. In the remainder of this discussion, i will conduct a contrastive analysis in which i compare the languages respective consonant and vowel systems, as well as a brief exploration of some phonotactic constraints.
Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books youve read. An interlanguage is an idiolect that has been developed by a learner of a second language or l2 which preserves some features of their first language or l1, and can also overgeneralize some l2 writing and speaking rules. No uniformity is evident in contrastive analysis hypothesis. Due to the need for a psychological component in the analysis, the notion of transfer is discussed. Often used to reconstruct historic language trees, showing how whole language families developed and diverged. The application of contrastive analysis in the classroom. Especially in the teaching of languages for which no considerable and 111. Contrastive analysis literature crosslinguistictransfer.
At the end are guiding questions for the educator to contemplate instruction and contrastive analysis. These two characteristics of an interlanguage result in the systems unique linguistic organization. However, contrastive analysis certainly cannot predict these developmental errors. Readers are encouraged to study more indepth to gain a full appreciation of this hypothesis. He goes on to point out subsequent theorists criticism of the subjectivity of original cah observations and presents research finding no support for the predictions of the contrastive analyses so carefully worked out by linguists p. Contrastive analysis is the systematic study of a pair of languages with a view to identifying their structural differences and similarities. The contrastive analysis hypothesis cah in the 1950s, the study of second language acquisition sla was largely based on the contrastive hypothesis or contrastive analysis hypothesis, cah. Contrastive analysis is the systematic study of a pair of languages with a view to identifying.
May 01, 2017 be familar with the field of contrastive analysis. L2 phonemes that are different from l1 phonemes will be hard to produce. This is a brief overview of contrastive analysis for the reader to understand the main points. Supported by the behaviorist psychology which justified the learning process by a series of stimulus and responses. Often used to reconstruct historic language trees, showing how.
The main difference between the approximative system hypothesis and the interlanguage hypothesis is that the latter emphasizes the structurally intermediate status of the learners language system between mother tongue and target language, while the former emphasizes the transitional and dynamic nature of the system keshavarz, 1999. Students of a foreign language transfer the items, categories and structures of their native language to the target language. Brown 2000 states cah claimed that the principal barrier to second language acquisition is. Sla background robert lado, contrastive analysis, audiolingualism 2. Contrastive analysis and error analysis in combination. Contrastive analysis presents a successful theoretical and practical case for the value of ca as a research tool, both for those studying applied linguistics and for teachers needing to adjust their teaching to the state of knowledge of their students. Ca does not analyze the language acquisition process in all the ways. Cah this extension of the notion of ca attributed the ability to predict errors to a ca of two languages, a predictability that practitioners associated with. The advantage of exploiting contrastive analysis in teaching and learning a f oreign language. A part of the difficulties can be attributed to the mother. Contrastive analysis hypothesis states that the structure of the learners l1 affects the acquisition the two terms acquisitionlearning interchangeably of their l2, in the sense that whenever there are similarities the l2 learning is facilitated, and whenever there are differences the learning process is difficult.
Enter your mobile number or email address below and well send you a link to download the. Contrastive analysis fails to distinguish between the written rules of formal language and the unwritten rules of informal language. Pdf although contrastive analysis has often been questioned for its inadequacy to predict the transfer errors that learners will make in actual. Chinese, very few empirical studies have applied the markedness theories to the field analysis. The interest in ea, however, declined after the growing enthusiasm for contrastive analysis henceforth ca which was considered a more reliable method than ea for predicting and explaining learning difficulties chau, 1975.
Contrastive analysis hypothesis was emerged when the structural linguistic and behavioral psychology paid attention in the sixties. A critical survey of contrastive analysis hypothesis in a multilingual. My analysis focuses on the weak version what is transfer. A basis for making selections, a format for contrasts, and a means of relating contrast and prediction is suggested. What links here related changes upload file special pages permanent link. Ca is unable to account for the failures or the success of the learners.
Contrastive analysis or contrastive linguistic is one of the applied linguistics that analyzes and describes the comparison equalities and differences between source language l1 and target language l2. Using both psycholinguistic and linguistic analysis, he establishes a sound theoretical basis for ca before going on to illustrate its contribution to the study of. The following assumptions mav be said to underlie the contrastive analysis hypothesis. Contrastive analysis it is a technique that enables you to distinguish the different ways that someone codes their thinking. Contrastive linguistics is related to applied linguistics. As recently as 1967 politzer affirmed perhaps the least questioned and least questionable application of linguistics is the contribution of contrastive analysis. The hypothesis formulated here is that contrastive analysis is capable of predicting. Contrastive analysis of hypothesis also called ca is the comparison of the.
Contrastive analysis in nlp is a process of analyzing two sets of submodalities to discover the differences it is a technique that enables you to distinguish the different ways that someone codes their thinking. Be aware of some differences between arabic and english 4. Pdf the contrastive analysis hypothesis and spelling errors. Contrastive analysis and error analysis in combination with. Recent advances in linguistic theory have led some people to claim that the hypothesis is no longer useful in either the strong or the weak version. The criticism is that contrastive analysis hypothesis could not be sustained by empirical evidence. For example, german learners persist for some time in making erroneous choices between much and many despite the fact that german also makes a formal distinction between singular viel and plural viele. L1 and l2, pointing at the specific features of each language system in its major areas. Worlds best powerpoint templates crystalgraphics offers more powerpoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. A contrastive analysis of the prepositions of and from 4. Be familiar with how mother tongue interfers in the second language outline introduction 1. Contrastive analysis ca is a method to distinguish between what are needed and not needed to learn by the target languagetl learner by evaluating languages m.
For instance, for a moment think of someone you really like, get a picture of him or her and notice where that picture is located in your visual field i. A critical survey of contrastive analysis hypothesis in a. Contrastive analysis hypotheses cah strong version the change that has to take place in the language behavior of a foreign language student can be equated to the differences between the structure of the students native language and culture and that of. In its strongest formulation, the contrastive analysis hypothesis claimed that all. Contrastive analysis includes all fields of linguistics such as phonology, semantics, syntax, morphology and pragmatics. Winner of the standing ovation award for best powerpoint templates from presentations magazine. View contrastive analysis research papers on academia. It also fails to take into account differences between dialects. Contrastive analysis, error analysis, interlanguage and. Contrastive analysis before discussing about the different hypothesis of contrastive analysis we should be familiar with the concept of difficulty and simplicity in language study, so we look at the hierarchy degrees of difficulty in languages. Contrastive analysis became associated with behaviorist psychology, which was another separate influence on language teaching, particularly on audiolingual language teaching, and especially in the united states. Contrastive analysis hypothesis cah comparisons of acoustic values suggested that french y may be more dissimilar from the closest english vowel than is french u. It was soon pointed out that many errors predicted by contrastive analysis were inexplicably not observed in learners language.
Theyll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance the kind of sophisticated look that todays audiences expect. Contrastive analysis and error analysis between the. Jun 01, 2012 contrastive analysis or contrastive linguistic is one of the applied linguistics that analyzes and describes the comparison equalities and differences between source language l1 and target language l2. Contrastive analysis with predictive power research mit. This means that their old habits may interfere with their learning task. With charles fries, he was involved with the university of michigan eli english language institute, which researched the best.611 677 977 876 204 728 82 600 1309 1362 1007 563 142 1420 988 1157 855 51 1303 353 55 1135 478 1335 856 1282 49 770 866 1094 1132 137 649 570 1419 1378 539 51 1212